An amusing add directed to American livestock farmers that has appeared in several agriculture and livestock magazines -
Advice from Steer Wrestler Matt Reeves, a DECTOMAX user. Source – DECTOMAX
Nematodes are one of the biggest problems not only in the States, but globally. The increasing over-use and inappropriate use of anthelmintics , however, is leading to serious resistance and thus to uselessness or greatly diminished efficacy of the products.
See this link for a short video of the Anthelmintic effect of papain on Heligmosomoides bakeri (the parasite shown in the picture, below). This is a Wikipedia page, you will need to scroll down and on the right side you will see the black and picture shown below, which you will then open to view the short video.
A still from the video. See below for explanation. Source – anthelmintic_effect_of_papain_on_heligmosomoides_bakeri-ogv
A single adult female living specimen of Heligmosomoides bakeri was mounted on a microscope slide in Hanks’s saline and sandwiched beneath a glass coverslip supported on petroleum jelly. The worm was imaged using a Zeiss Axiovert 135TV inverted microscope and photographed using a Scion CFW 1310 M digital camera. A solution of 25 μM papain was introduced below the coverslip and images were captured on a PC using Streampix III time-lapse software at a frame rate of approximately 1 image every 3 seconds for 30 minutes. The video file was edited and exported as an mpeg running at 10 times the original speed. The file is titled “H. bakeri female papain.mpg” and initially shows the worm freely moving in the papain solution. After the animal forms a helical coil, a lesion appears on the left of the worm. This is followed by rupture of the worm and loss of the viscera through the rupture leading to the death of the parasite
Source - Behnke, J. M.; Buttle, D. J.; Stepek, G.; Lowe, A.; Duce, I. R. (2008). “Developing novel anthelmintics from plant cysteine proteinases”. Parasites & Vectors 1: 29.doi:10.1186/1756-3305-1-29.
A healthy helminth, or roundworm, Celegans Goldstein, Laboratory at University of North Carolina. Source – Wikipedia
Here are a couple of online resources that are pretty good -
A comprehensive, open-access collection of original, peer-reviewed chapters covering topics related to the biology of Caenorhabditis elegans and other nematodes.Wormbook also contains: WormMethods, a collection of protocols for nematode researchers; WormHistory, personal perspectives on C. elegans research; and the Worm Breeder’s Gazette, an informal, non-refereed, biannual newsletter for the interchange of ideas and information related to C. elegans and other nematodes.